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‘Bacha Bazi’, la práctica de abuso que pone en riesgo a niños en Afganistán

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La crítica situación política y de seguridad en Afganistán mantiene en vilo al mundo, debido al riesgo que corren sus ciudadanos, especialmente las mujeres y los niños.

Tras la toma del poder por parte de los talibanes, organismos internacionales ya han alertado sobre los riesgos y los crímenes perpetrados contra estos dos grupos de la población. Y es que los menores en dicho país están expuestos a abusos por cuenta de una práctica de explotación sexual ampliamente aceptada.

En Afganistán existe el término ‘Bacha Bazi’, que se refiere a la práctica en la que un grupo de menores son utilizados para shows de baile mientras usan ropa de mujer. Los niños también sufren abusos y violaciones sexuales.

Un informe de la Comisión Independiente de Derechos Humanos de Afganistán (AIHRC por sus siglas en inglés) explica que, en esta práctica, un grupo de personas mantiene en su poder a niños entre los 10 y los 18 años con el fin de someterlos a explotación sexual y otras formas de acoso.

“En algunas partes del país, los niños deben llevar ropa de mujer y se utilizan como bailarines en fiestas y ceremonias de boda. Al final de las ceremonias, por lo general son llevados a casas privadas u hoteles y violados. A veces incluso son violados en grupo”, dice el informe de la Comisión.

Según el documento, la práctica de ‘Bacha Bazi’ o de los niños usados con fines sexuales, surgió hace mucho tiempo pero se intensificó en los años de la guerra, cuando los comandantes, estando lejos de casa, explotaban sexualmente a los jóvenes que hacían parte de su guardia ante su falta de actividad sexual. La práctica se expandió y hoy es común en el país.

La crítica situación política y de seguridad en Afganistán mantiene en vilo al mundo, debido al riesgo que corren sus ciudadanos, especialmente las mujeres y los niños.

Tras la toma del poder por parte de los talibanes, organismos internacionales ya han alertado sobre los riesgos y los crímenes perpetrados contra estos dos grupos de la población. Y es que los menores en dicho país están expuestos a abusos por cuenta de una práctica de explotación sexual ampliamente aceptada.

En Afganistán existe el término ‘Bacha Bazi’, que se refiere a la práctica en la que un grupo de menores son utilizados para shows de baile mientras usan ropa de mujer. Los niños también sufren abusos y violaciones sexuales.

Un informe de la Comisión Independiente de Derechos Humanos de Afganistán (AIHRC por sus siglas en inglés) explica que, en esta práctica, un grupo de personas mantiene en su poder a niños entre los 10 y los 18 años con el fin de someterlos a explotación sexual y otras formas de acoso.

“En algunas partes del país, los niños deben llevar ropa de mujer y se utilizan como bailarines en fiestas y ceremonias de boda. Al final de las ceremonias, por lo general son llevados a casas privadas u hoteles y violados. A veces incluso son violados en grupo”, dice el informe de la Comisión.

Según el documento, la práctica de ‘Bacha Bazi’ o de los niños usados con fines sexuales, surgió hace mucho tiempo pero se intensificó en los años de la guerra, cuando los comandantes, estando lejos de casa, explotaban sexualmente a los jóvenes que hacían parte de su guardia ante su falta de actividad sexual. La práctica se expandió y hoy es común en el país.

¿Por qué persiste esta práctica de abuso? Según AIHRC, la propagación y expansión de esta tiene varias causas, entre ellas la pobreza, la inseguridad, la existencia de grupos armados, la falta de un estado de derecho, la corrupción y el acceso limitado a la justicia.

“La pobreza juega un papel importante en la expansión de Bacha Bazi. La mayoría de las víctimas provienen de familias pobres que tratan de ganarse la vida al servicio de otras personas, que más tarde se dedican a abusos sexuales o de otro tipo. La mayoría de las familias no saben que sus hijos son violados. Los perpetradores se aprovechan de su pobreza y atraen a los niños con el dinero”, dice el informe.

documenta AIHRC, la presencia de grupos armados ha contribuido a la propagación de esta práctica, debido a que muchos de los abusadores de los menores están en contacto con estos grupos o hacen parte de los mismos.

Bacha Bazi es además un gran daño a los menores, pues las violaciones y abusos causan graves daños psicológicos en ellos. “Las víctimas sufren de trauma psicológico y estrés y una especie de desconfianza, desesperanza y sentimiento pesimista les invade. Bacha Bazi resulta en el miedo entre los niños y en un sentimiento de venganza y hostilidad”, dice el informe.

Aunque en 2017 el gobierno afgano aprobó una ley que prohíbe y criminaliza esta práctica, lo cierto es que esta no se detiene y los riesgos para niños, niñas, adolescentes y mujeres en ese país son cada vez mayores.

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